The term Maafa was introduced by anthropologist Marimba Ani in 1988 and is Swahili for terrible disaster. Maafa refers to both the East African and transatlantic trades in enslaved people, as well as the genocides of African populations that usually accompanied colonialism. Their aftermath can still be felt today, for example, in the form of racism. Maafa thus serves as a term to summarize the crimes against black people.